History of Gwydir Street, Cambridge (UK)

I would be interested in any more memories. Contact me at here.

GeneralReferences to Gwydir St
in directories
Brief history of Gwydir Street (below)
History of Mill Road end of Gwydir Street (below)
History of St Matthews Area (below)
Jubilees, coronations and celebrations
House names
People's memories - there are also memories in the individual house histories
Summary of directories - I suggest that you look up names here
1879
1883
1892
1904
1913
1916

History of individual houses

House numbers:

1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 15 - 17 - 17a - 19 - 21 - 22 - 23/25 - 24 - 26 - 27 - 28 - 29 - 31 - 32 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 37 - 38 - 39 - 40 - 41 - 42 - 43 - 44 - 45 - 46 - 47 - 48 - 49 - 50 - 51 - 52 - 53 - 54 - 55 - 56 - 57 - 58 - 59 - 60 - 61 - 62 - 63 - 64 - 65 - 66 - 67 - 68 - 69 - 70 - 71 - 72 - 73 - 74 - 75 - 76 - 77 - 78 - 79 - 80 - 81 - 82 - 83 - 84 - 85 - 86 - 87 - 88 - 89 - 90 - 91 - 92 - 93 - 94 - 95 - 96 - 97 - 98 - 99 - 100 - 101 - 102 - 103 - 104 - 105 - 106 - 107 - 108 - 109 - 110 - 111 - 112 - 113 - 114 - 115 - 116 - 117 - 118 - 119 - 120 - 121 - 122 - 123 - 124 - 125 - 126 - 127 - 128 - 129 - 130 - 131 - 132 - 133 - 134 - 135 - 136 - 137 - 138 - 138a - 139 - 140 - 140a - 141 - 142 - 144 - 144a - 145 - 146 - 147 - 148 - 149 - 150 - 151 - 152 - 153 - 154 - 155 - 156 - 157 - 158 - 159 - 160 - 161 - 162 - 163 - 164 - 166 - 167 - 168 - 169 - 170 - 171 - 172 - 173 - 174 - 175 - 176 - 177 - 178 - 179 - 180 - 180 - 181 - 182 - 183 - 184 - 185 - 186 - 188 - 190 - 192


Non-domestic buildings: Beaconsfield Club (now Beaconsfield House) - Alexandra Arms (22) - the former Gwydir Arms (45) -
Cambridge Blue (85) (the former Dewdrop Inn) - the former Brewers Arms (103) - Dales Brewery - Bath House

Old Photographs  businesses: butcher - horse and cart - more horses and carts - The Gwydir Arms - businesses in 1963
people from: no. 60 - no. 74 - no. 116 - no. 154
other: air raid shelter - Kinema - jubilees, coronations and celebrations



Brief history of Gwydir Street

This history explains where some of our street names come from. See if you can spot them! The area was originally part of the estates of Barnwell Priory.

After the dissolution of the monasteries, the lands came into private hands - the Wendy family of Haslingfield (1553 - 1655) and the Butler family (1656-1759). The Butlers sold them to Thomas Panton, chief groom or equerry to King George II (note the Panton Arms in New Town). All this time, the area was farmland.

Thomas Panton's son, 'Polite' Tommy Panton, succeeded in 1806 in having Parliament pass the Barnwell Enclosures Act, which paved the way for the development of the area. He died without direct heirs, and the land passed to his niece, Baroness Gwydir, daughter of the Duchess of Ancaster. Her son sold off much of the Barnwell land, including the Gwydir Street area which was sold to the Rev Dr James Geldart in 1809.

The coming of the railway in 1845 signalled the transformation of the whole area from quiet country to bustling town. On 19 December 1867, the Rev Richard John Geldart (?son of James) sold some of the land to Joseph Sturton, a wholesale chemist of Fitzroy Street.

Date on house The land was then parcelled up into plots. A builder would buy a plot of land, build a few houses on it and sell them. As you walk down Gwydir Street, you can see the different building styles every few houses. This gives the area its slightly crooked charm, as opposed to terraced housing in the northern England, where the whole street was built at once, by the same builder. Some of the Gwydir Street houses have dates on them, such as 1869, 1870, 1875, 1876, 1879 and 1883.

The houses were sold to landlords, who rented them out. The unplanned and virtually overnight erection of countless dwellings brought with it many disadvantages. Overcrowding and primitive water supply and sewage disposal led to the spread of disease. A typhoid epidemic of 1888 was traced back to an inhabitant of Sturton Street and the area was a haven for villains. The degenerate nature of the area at that time resulted in a host of voluntary agencies being set up, ranging from co-operatives to temperance societies. The appropriate authorities also decided that the church of St Andrew the Less was too distant and too small to provide the necessary Christian influence in the area. Accordingly, St Matthews Church was built in 1866 and St Barnabas Church on Mill Road in 1880.

Educational facilities were provided by the Old Schools Trust and the church. From 1870 onward, a variety of Sunday schools and day schools in Norfolk Street, Sturton Street and York Street catered for the needs of children of all ages in the community. The primary source of education for adults of the area was the Mill Road Free Library which was opened in 1897, its previous site having been on East Road. Today, most of the schools and the library no longer exist, or are used for some other purpose, but we still have Brunswick Nursery, St Matthews Primary School and Anglia Ruskin University, serving not only this area, but far beyond.

Dales Brewery The population of West Barnwell (as our area was called) in 1871 was 6,585. Those who lived in the area were, on the whole, employed in unskilled or labouring work for the colleges, railway or building trade. Girls usually went into service. Many were unable to find work at all. A limited survey of 1906 suggested that unemployment in the St Matthews area accounted for 20% of the figure for the whole of Cambridge.

By the late 1880s the transformation from open field to town was virtually complete, in that the majority of the area was built up and densely populated. As the area developed, so did the facilities, an adequate system of water supply and main drainage coming into existence at the start of the twentieth century.

The population fell throughout the twentieth century. In 1911 it was 5,732, and by 1961 it had fallen to 4,165. In the mid twentieth century, the area was considered for 'slum clearance', for redevelopment and road plans. This never happened. In 1976 the GIA (General Improvement Area) was launched, giving grants to people to improve their houses.

Recent history includes the bollards in Gwydir Street and Hooper Street which stopped the local roads being used as a short cut by traffic, the redevelopment of the Bath House, Dales Brewery and the Pye site to provide places for small businesses and local groups, and a certain amount of new residential building. The area is no longer considered a slum!




History of Mill Road end of Gwydir Street including Dales Brewery

The section of Gwydir Street from Hooper Street to Mill Road wasn't developed until the 1870s because there was a proposal to build a spur from the Railway Station to Clarendon Street. Once this was rejected, the plots of housing land went on sale and were bought by developers, some as multiple plots such as Lorne Terrace and Gothic Terrace while others were bought individually. The plots were all a little wider than previously developed. Some of these individual plots were built a little taller with increased specifications and details obviously in an attempt to make this section of the street even more up-market and profitable. 175 for example has a double-sized front window and curved windows in the front bedroom and its first occupant in 1881 was Mr James Burton, a 46 year old blind man who lived there with his wife and two domestic servants. However within ten years, it became clear that the western side of Gwydir Street was regarded as much less desirable than the east, possibly because of the presence of the Workhouse at the end of the garden. In 1891 No 175 was occupied by William Beasley, a 75 year old Bricklayer, his wife and five grown up children who are listed as a traveller, 2 painters and a stay-maker - no domestic servants then and I wonder where they all slept! It is estimated that rents on the west side of the street were between £8-25 per year but on the east £8 was the maximum. No 184 Gothic House, on the east side of the road, is the largest of the houses near Mill Road and has always remained up-market.

Fronting onto Mill Road on the east side of the road was a large imposing house owned by a doctor that was demolished in 1927 for the Bath House allowing many occupants of Gwydir and the surrounding streets their first access to hot, personal-use-only baths. The Bath House was still in operation into the 1970s.

In 1874 the Brewery at the top of Gwydir Street was owned by Pitson & Newman and passed to Percy Dyball and in 1880 John Pamplin took it over, no one seemed to be able to make a go of it and in 1889 it was closed and used as stabling. Finally in 1902 Frederick Dale moved his brewery from behind the British Queen on Histon Road into the premises that still bear his name. Dales expanded rapidly following the award in 1911 of the best beer at the Brewers International Exhibition. A seven-foot replica of the trophy stood on the roof until the 1960s. In 1912 buildings were expanded and several houses were bought: 181, 179 (neither of which survive) 177 and 175 to house employees and to acquire their gardens to build onto. The water required for brewing was taken from a bore hole (180ft deep into the lower green sand, very pure) and still exists in the garden of 177. Half of the garden of 175 became a brick-built bottle store and was finally re-acquired back as a garden in 2000. Dales also bought Nos. 188,190 and 192 as well as the orchard in what is now the Gwydir Street car park which was used first as stabling for the delivery horses and drays and more recently vans and lorries. The concrete plinths near the side of No. 192 are where the petrol pumps stood.

By 1946 there had been some modernisation to many of the houses. Many had a bath and geyser fitted in the third bedroom upstairs but toilets were still outside in a shed. Cooking was mostly done on a range with only a cold water tap in the kitchen and fireplaces were still in everyday use, coal was the common fuel, central heating still being many years away as were fitted carpets. Flooring was lino covered with rugs and the houses were so cold that during the winter, water froze in the glass beside the bed. Washing was done with the help of a gas boiler and tub but since brewing day was also Monday, beware the smell when hanging out the washing!

Sold to Whitbread in 1955, brewing ceased in 1958 and the site was used as a depot and stores. By the 1960s Gwydir Street was still an unfashionable area, housing was cheap and many properties were rented. Whitbread closed the site in 1966 and sold the site to the Council who used empty houses to re-house many people from the Kite which had become very run-down as its future was undecided. When the Arbury Estate was opened in the 1970s many council tenants were re-housed there and more properties on Gwydir Street became available for sale. The Brewery buildings were let to several different organisations including a foreign language school. In 1982 after a vociferous debate it was decided that these buildings were not suitable for housing development and the current arrangement of antique shops, offices and stores was developed.





We picked up this page of information when we bought our house in Gwydir Street in 1978. The GIA (General Improvement Area) was being set up, and this was provided by the city council for anyone interested in the area.

The History of the St Matthews Area

Prepared and written by Mr. Timothy Sewell for the Department of Architecture and Planning, Cambridge City Council 1976

Prior to the Cambridge Inclosure Act of 1807, the St Matthews area was part of the village of Barnwell in the parish of St Andrew the Less, and lay in an open field which was known as Bradmore Field. The boundaries of Bradmore Field were Gravel Pit Road (now East Road), the road to Newmarket, Cherry Hinton Road (now Coldhams Lane) and a private road (now Mill Road). In 1801 the parish had a population of 252 and it was estimated that there were only 79 houses in the parish, the majority of these being situated on the southern side of Newmarket Road.

The Inclosure Act resulted in the majority of the area, over 131 acres, being awarded to the "person or persons entitled to the Estates of the late Thomas Panton, Esquire". Land which ran alongside east Road and Newmarket Road was awarded in small parcels to individuals and to some of the colleges, and it was on these plots that building first took place after inclosure, although the settlement remained no more than a village with fields and orchards extending to the east. Land south of Mill Road in the proposed General Improvement Area (GIA) was awarded in the main to Gonvil and Caius College (sic.)

The coming of the railway signalled the transformation of the area from quiet country to bustling town. In 1845 the London to Norwich line was opened and formed the eastern boundary of the St. Matthews area. Infilling of the area was rapid. Josiah Chater, a local diarist of the time wrote "After 1845 the Mill Road area began to grow ... the Barnwell district grew too, with the coming of the railway, its numerous poor cottages crowded into insanitary courts..." Mill Road, once a quiet country road, became a main street. To the north of it was the cemetery (opened in 1848, formerly the University Cricket Ground), the Cambridge Union Workshouse (opened in 1838 and now the maternity hospital, its premises had previously been in Workhouse Lane, now Norfolk Street - and Staffordshire Place), and on either side of the road, there were a host of shops and eating places.

The unplanned and virtually overnight erection of countless dwellings brought with in many disadvantages. Overcrowding and primitive water supply and sewage disposal led to the spread of disease (a typhoid epidemic of 1888 was traced back to an inhabitant of Sturton Street) and the area was a ready made haven for villains. The degenerative nature of the area at that time resulted in a host of voluntary agencies being set up, ranging from co-operatives to temperance societies. The appropriate authorities also decided that the church of St Andrew the Less was too distant and too small to provide the necessary Christian influence in the area. Accordingly, St Matthews church was built in 1866 to serve these requirements, and in 1870 the area became St Matthews district council. Similar reasons brought about the building of St Barnabas Church on Mill Road which was completed in 1880.

Educational facilities were provided by the Old Schools Trust and the church. From 1870 onwards a variety of Sunday schools and day schools in Norfolk Street, Sturton Street and York Street catered for the needs of children of all ages in the community. The primary source of education for adults of the area was the Mill Road Free Library, which was opened in 1897, its previous site having been on east Road. Today, most of the schools no longer exist or are used for some other purpose. The Brunswick Nursery, St Matthews primary School, the Further Education centres at Young and York Street and the Technical College serve the educational needs of not only modern day St Matthews but also the rest of the City and the County.

The population of West Barnwell (which almost corresponds to the GIA) in 1871 was 6,585. Those who lived in the area were, on the whole, employed in unskilled or labouring work for the colleges, railway or building trade. Girls usually went into service. many were unable to find work at all. A limited survey of 1906 suggested that the unemployment in the St Matthews Area accounted for 20% of the figure for the whole of Cambridge.

By the late 1880s the transformation from open field to town was virtually complete in that the majority of the area was built up and densely populated. The majority of the existing terraces in the area were built between 1870 and 1890. As the area developed so too facilities, an adequate system of water supply and main drainage coming into existance after the turn of the century.

The street pattern changed only slightly after 1890. Devonshire Road, which once extended only a few yards to the south of Mill Road, now curves south and joins Tenison Avenue; in 1888, Sturton Street terminated where it met Geldart Street, but now travels on to New Street; in 1888 there was no Petworth Street, and Young Street was then Albert Street. At that time, Sturton Town Hall (the area had ben known as Sturton Town before St Matthews Church was built) was yet to become the Kinema; the Workhouse was gradually converted into a maternity hospital, and the extensive Covent Nursery was to be swallowed up by houses and a secondary school, later to become the Technical College. The only reminder of the nursery today are those street names inspired by it - Covent Garden, Flower and Blossom Streets.

Since the turn of the century, the population of the area has decreased. In 1911 it was 5,732 and by 1961 it had fallen to 4,165, a trend which can be explained to a certain extent by a reduction in the housing stock of the area.

Essentially the layout of the area remained as it was in the late nineteenth century until the early 1950's. It was then that the planning policies for Cambridge embodied in the Cambridgeshire County Development Plan were produced. There were two major recommendations in the plan which affected the St Matthews area. The first of these was that three areas between Broad Steet and Newmarket Road, areas of severe "blight", be designated Comprehensive Development Areas (CDAs) and subject to redevelopment, taking the form of housing, business and mixed use. The second recommendation was that, as a consequence of a proposed new Chesterton Bridge (Elizabeth Way), a road linking Newmarket Road and Brooklands Avenue would be required, its route taking in Newmarket Road/East Road junction, Sturton Street, Kingston Street and Devonshire Road. This route later became known as the Main Town Road. Other recommendations in the plan were improvements in educational facilities and the containment of light industry to land east of York Street.

Intermittent reviews suggested that the Mill Road shopping area would benefit from a car park situated in the Covent Garden area. The reviews culminated in a new Development Plan for Cambridge in 1965, which became known as the Town Map. The new plan did not affect the St Matthews area further. By this time, 1952 policies were being completed, notably CDA No.1, the area between East Road, Norfolk Street, St Matthews Street and New Street, had ben completed with a mixed scheme of houses, flats and shops replacing sub-standard terraces.

The Cambridge Transportation Plan (July 1972) pursued the idea of the Main Town Road but concluded that an alternative route alongside the railway would be preferable to the City's traffic requirements. the City Council's Statement of Objectives and Policies 1974 (th Blueprint) adopted this proposal, but by this time the proposed Mill Road car park, despite still being in the Town Map, was effectively dea. The Blueprint also proposed that a series of local plans be embarked upon, taking a more detailed look at the requirements of certain areas, and that GIA's should be declared in order to aid rehabilitation of areas.

Early on in the preparation stage of the Local Plan, it was decided to positively free properties from the blight of the now defunct Town Road. This was done in 1975. The Local Plan is ow, in 1976, nearing completion, and the GIA is being launched - hence the reason for writing this history.

Sources of Information:
     The Cambridgeshire Collection at the Central Library
     'Gas Lane and Blossom Street. A study of life and social work in a working class parish of Cambridge, 1875-1975' by Catharine Russell.


It's strange to find one's own memories becoming history... The Kinema was on Mill Road - long gone. The maternity hospital moved to the Rosie, on the Addenbrookes site, in 1984, and the building is now Ditchburn Place. The Technical College became a university and is now Anglia Ruskin - older people still tend to call it "the Tech". The Mill Road library has closed as such although the building is still there, next to the railway bridge.

The GIA (General Improvement Area) mentioned above was a great success. When we bought our house in 1978, we applied for a GIA grant. A man from the council came round to survey our house and comment on the changes we wanted to make. The grant was given to get the buuilding up to minimal buildings standards (for example, the kitchen had to be at least 65 sq ft, and all external walls had to be double thickness) and to give it at least 30 years more life. The grant was 60% of the cost of the allowable alterations. A lot of young couples were buying and renovating, like us, and even older existing house owners improved their properties. So the area was changed to a "desirable place to live"! It was called "gentrification" at the time.




Timeline of Mill Road

This is from a leaflet by the "Capturing Mill Road" project - see website.

Timeline of Mill Road, Cambridge


If you want to investigate any ancestors who lived in Gwydir Street, these might help your research.